本期双色球专家推荐号:代写英国essay：Haze control in Britain
Britain was once a pioneer of the industrial revolution in the world and is now the leader of the global ecological civilization. During this period, the UK has 30 years of experience and experience in cleaning up environmental pollution and exploring ecological civilization, especially in London, which can serve as a reference for the industrialization and urbanization of jiangsu.
In the 1950s, London was plagued by smog. Dust, toxic gases and pollutants from coal burning accumulate over the city in winter, causing days of heavy smog and a strong odor throughout the city. People walk down the street and can't even look down at their feet. Many londoners suffer from breathing difficulties, tingling eyes and a high incidence of respiratory diseases such as asthma and cough. More than 12,000 people died of respiratory diseases in the first and middle of December 1952 alone.
At the cost of their lives, the British have made up their minds to clean up the environment. The first Clean Air Act was introduced in 1956. The bill requires cities and towns to use smokeless fuels, promote electricity and natural gas, and use central heating in winter. Power plants and heavy industry facilities have been relocated to the suburbs. The pollution control act of 1974 included provisions to protect everything from air to land and water, and added provisions to control noise. The strict implementation of successive decrees guarantees the rebirth of "fog capital".
Expanding green space is an important means to control pollution and improve the environment in London according to law. Although London is densely populated, it has a green area of 24 square meters per capita, and a large circular green belt is built outside the city. Even in central London, where land is scarce, there are still large areas of green space such as Hyde park and James park.
London's battersea power station, once Britain's largest, is considered a symbol of the industrial age, when it burned 10,000 tons of coal a week at its peak and consumed 1.55 million cubic meters of the river Thames every day. The battersea power station was officially shut down in 1989 to reduce pollution.
In February 2007, the then mayor of London, livingstone, announced an environmental plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 60 percent within 20 years and make London the greenest city in the world. About 7.5 million londoners are expected to spend less time watching television and switch to energy-efficient light bulbs. Companies and government agencies that have performed well in energy conservation and environmental protection have been awarded the green medal.
Britain is the first country to put forward the concept of "low carbon" and actively advocate low-carbon economy. London plays a leading role in the construction of low-carbon cities. In 2007, London issued the platform for action on climate change, which set carbon reduction targets. We will cut emissions by 60 percent by 2025 from 1990 levels. To accomplish this daunting task, London has focused in part on building smart grids.
As the city with the highest carbon emission and the largest electricity consumption in the UK, London's effective use of electricity plays a pivotal role in achieving emission reduction targets. In 2011, with the promotion of the UK electricity regulatory commission, the UK electric power company, together with high-tech enterprises and universities, launched the "low-carbon London" experimental project with a total investment of 30 million pounds. The main research of this project involves three aspects, one is to increase the power source. To improve the efficiency of power utilization, it involves the application of distributed power supply system and the popularization of intelligent meters. Second, power supply and transportation, that is to promote the development of electric vehicles; third, the power supply of heat, that is, the promotion of heat pumps.
Compared with traditional centralized power supply, distributed power supply mainly refers to placing power generation system near users in a small-scale and decentralized way. This kind of power supply mode has a variety of environment-friendly fuels. Meanwhile, it can reduce the pressure of the central power grid and improve the safety and flexibility of power supply. The project is also responsible for the installation of 6,500 trial smart meters for London's low-carbon communities and enterprise parks, whose operation will determine whether to implement them nationwide. Smart meters can send real-time electricity and gas consumption information of households and enterprises, facilitate off-peak electricity consumption and remote monitoring. At the same time with the installation of trial and efficient use of electricity refrigeration heat pump. In addition, the project will install 630 charging points for electric vehicles in the city of London and monitor 50 electric vehicles in operation to determine further plans for electric vehicle development in the future.
Low-carbon technology is one of the main challenges of the project. At present, the project team is vigorously promoting the research and development of relevant technologies. The heat pump and electric vehicle technologies are in the critical stage.
The UK government recognises that urban air pollution is as much about fuel structure as it is about urban air pollution. It is also the result of the high concentration of population, transportation and industry, which needs comprehensive management, among which industrial transformation is the key. To this end, the UK is no longer solely dependent on manufacturing, but vigorously develop the service industry and high-tech industries.
According to the government's plan, renewable energy will account for 15% of the energy supply by 2020, and 40% of electricity will come from green energy -- both "green transformation" of coal-fired power stations and the development of green energy such as wind power. By then Britain will have cut greenhouse gas emissions by 20% and demand for oil by 7%.
The government has also drawn up plans to promote solar energy and subsidize rooftop solar panels. As an island country, the UK also makes full use of offshore wind energy, and its installed capacity of offshore wind power stations is among the highest in the world.
To promote green development, the British government has announced a "green rating" on the energy efficiency of all houses to improve their energy efficiency and reduce emissions. It also requires all new homes to be "zero-emission" from 2016, and that such environmentally friendly homes will be exempt from stamp duty.
Nowadays, energy saving has become a fashionable way of life in Britain. Tesco, the British retail giant, takes the lead in building a number of "zero-carbon" supermarkets. It creates an emerging shopping environment by means of self-provided biomass generators, building energy saving and recycling rainwater. Beddington zero-carbon community in south London is the prototype of zero-carbon pavilion of Shanghai world expo. Its leading design in architecture, life and many other aspects has become a benchmark.
In 2012, green economy industry grew into one of the few areas of economic growth in Britain. From this year to 2015, the annual growth rate will exceed 4%. The green industry will create 400,000 jobs, and this number will continue to rise. In another 5-7 years, there will be 1.2 million green industry workers.
With the great development of automobile industry, photochemical pollution caused by automobile exhaust emission becomes more and more serious.
The city government of London has taken measures to restrict private cars from entering the city. Since February 2003, the city of London has imposed a "congestion charge" of 5 pounds a day on vehicles entering the city centre from 7am to 6.30pm on weekdays. Since then, the charging area has been expanded and the charging standard has been raised to 8 pounds. The city has since unveiled a tougher transport 2025 plan. Private cars are restricted from entering London.
Currently, the number of vehicles entering congestion charging areas per day has been reduced by 60,000 and emissions have been reduced by 12 per cent. An increasing number of people are choosing to take buses and subways instead of driving to work, increasing bus operating income by 20 percent. What's more, this measure greatly improves the reliability of buses. People spent significantly less time on the road, with travel time reduced by 14 percent.